Physics.RamanSpectroscopyH2 History

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July 13, 2008, at 12:49 PM by 88.66.198.247 -
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At the Max Planck Institut für Kernphysik the molecule H3+ is investigated. To understand better this molecule better not normal H2 but para-H2 is used as ion source material. The nuclear spins of the H-atoms have two possibilites: parallel (called ortho) or antiparallel (called para). In thermic equilibrium hydrogen at 300 Kelvin the ratio between para- and ortho-hydrogen is 1:3. The para state is energetic lower than the ortho state. To produce hydrogen gas that consists mainly by para hydrogen normal hydrogen gas is cooled below 20 Kelvin. Because a spin flip is not so likely, a catalyst with paramagnetic properties is in contact with the cold hydrogen gas to accelerated this process. A device that converts normal hydrogen gas to para-hydrogen is called para-hydrogen-converter. To measure the purity of the para-hydrogen gas Raman spectroscopy is used. This work was done with Dennis Bing in 2006. The following pictures are from the diploma thesis of Dennis Bing from the year 2006 (dennisbing2006) (thanks Dennis Bing for permission to use them).

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At the Max Planck Institut für Kernphysik the molecule H3+ is investigated. To understand this molecule better not normal H2 but para-H2 is used as ion source material. The nuclear spins of the two H-atoms of the molecule have two possibilites: parallel (called ortho) or antiparallel (called para). In thermic equilibrium hydrogen at 300 Kelvin the ratio between para- and ortho-hydrogen is 1:3. The para state is energetic lower than the ortho state. To produce hydrogen gas that consists mainly by para hydrogen normal hydrogen gas is cooled below 20 Kelvin. Because a spin flip is not so likely, a catalyst with paramagnetic properties is in contact with the cold hydrogen gas to accelerated this process. A device that converts normal hydrogen gas to para-hydrogen is called para-hydrogen-converter. To measure the purity of the para-hydrogen gas Raman spectroscopy is used. This work was done with Dennis Bing in 2006. The following pictures are from the diploma thesis of Dennis Bing from the year 2006 (dennisbing2006) (thanks Dennis Bing for permission to use them).

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Due to selection rules para hydrogen has only even rotational quantum numbers and ortho hydrogen has only odd rotational quantum numbers. The Raman spectrum of normal hydrogen consist of transition with even and odd rotational quantum numbers.

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Due to the symmetrie para hydrogen has only even rotational quantum numbers and ortho hydrogen has only odd rotational quantum numbers. The Raman spectrum of normal hydrogen consist of transition with even and odd rotational quantum numbers.

July 13, 2008, at 12:55 AM by 88.66.200.41 -
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Due to selection rules para hydrogen has only even rotional quantum numbers and ortho hydrogen has only odd rotional quantum numbers. The Raman spectrum of normal hydrogen consist of transition with even and odd rotional quantum numbers.

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Due to selection rules para hydrogen has only even rotational quantum numbers and ortho hydrogen has only odd rotational quantum numbers. The Raman spectrum of normal hydrogen consist of transition with even and odd rotational quantum numbers.

July 12, 2008, at 10:34 PM by 88.66.200.41 -
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With this methode the fraction of para- and ortho-hydrogen in the output gas of the para hydrogen converter is determinated with an accuarcy of one percent.

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With this setup the fraction of para- and ortho-hydrogen in the output gas of the para hydrogen converter is determinated with an accuarcy of one percent.

July 12, 2008, at 10:14 PM by 88.66.200.41 -
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At the Max Planck Institut für Kernphysik the molecule H3+ is investigated. To understand better this molecule better not normal H2 but para-H2 is used as ion source material. The nuclear spins of the H-atoms have two possibilites: parallel (called ortho) or antiparallel (called para). In thermic equilibrium hydrogen at 300 Kelvin the ratio between para- and ortho-hydrogen is 1:3. The para state is energetic lower than the ortho state. To produce hydrogen gas that consists mainly by para hydrogen normal hydrogen gas is cooled below 20 Kelvin. Because a spin flip is not so likely, a catalyst with paramagnetic properties is in contact with the cold hydrogen gas to accelerated this process. A device that converts normal hydrogen gas to para-hydrogen is called para-hydrogen-converter. To measure the purity of the para-hydrogen gas Raman spectroscopy is used. This work was done with Dennis Bing in 2006. The following pictures are from the diploma thesis of Dennis Bing from the year 2006 (dennisbing2006) (thanks Dennis Bing for permission to use them).

to:

At the Max Planck Institut für Kernphysik the molecule H3+ is investigated. To understand better this molecule better not normal H2 but para-H2 is used as ion source material. The nuclear spins of the H-atoms have two possibilites: parallel (called ortho) or antiparallel (called para). In thermic equilibrium hydrogen at 300 Kelvin the ratio between para- and ortho-hydrogen is 1:3. The para state is energetic lower than the ortho state. To produce hydrogen gas that consists mainly by para hydrogen normal hydrogen gas is cooled below 20 Kelvin. Because a spin flip is not so likely, a catalyst with paramagnetic properties is in contact with the cold hydrogen gas to accelerated this process. A device that converts normal hydrogen gas to para-hydrogen is called para-hydrogen-converter. To measure the purity of the para-hydrogen gas Raman spectroscopy is used. This work was done with Dennis Bing in 2006. The following pictures are from the diploma thesis of Dennis Bing from the year 2006 (dennisbing2006) (thanks Dennis Bing for permission to use them).

July 12, 2008, at 10:13 PM by 88.66.200.41 -
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Setup for Raman spectroscopy
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Setup for Raman spectroscopy
July 12, 2008, at 10:12 PM by 88.66.200.41 -
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With this methode the fraction of para- and ortho-hydrogen in the output of the para hydrogen converter is determinated with an accuarcy of one percent.

to:

With this methode the fraction of para- and ortho-hydrogen in the output gas of the para hydrogen converter is determinated with an accuarcy of one percent.

July 12, 2008, at 10:12 PM by 88.66.200.41 -
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With this methode the fraction of para- and ortho-hydrogen in the output of the para hydrogen converter is determinated with an accuarcy of one percent.

July 12, 2008, at 10:07 PM by 88.66.200.41 -
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In para hydrogen all lines related to ortho hydrogen disappears.


Raman spectrum of para hydrogen

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July 12, 2008, at 10:05 PM by 88.66.200.41 -
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Raman spectrum of normal hydrogen (red lines theoretical intensities with the used setup)
July 12, 2008, at 10:03 PM by 88.66.200.41 -
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Setup for Raman spectroscopy
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Setup for Raman spectroscopy

Due to selection rules para hydrogen has only even rotional quantum numbers and ortho hydrogen has only odd rotional quantum numbers. The Raman spectrum of normal hydrogen consist of transition with even and odd rotional quantum numbers.

July 12, 2008, at 09:52 PM by 88.66.200.41 -
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Setup for Raman spectroscopy
July 12, 2008, at 09:51 PM by 88.66.200.41 -
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Raman spectroscopy is a powerful for molecule spectroscopy. In the setup a laser at 532 nm with 500 mW is used. The laser is focused into a glas cell filled with hydrogen and the scattered light is projected into a spectrometer. The output of the spectrometer is detected with a photomultiplier.

July 12, 2008, at 09:43 PM by 88.66.200.41 -
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Sketch of the para hydrogen converter

Picture of the final para hydrogen converter
July 12, 2008, at 09:41 PM by 88.66.200.41 -
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The heart of the para hydrogen converter is a vessel made of ultrapure copper which is connected to a cold head.

July 12, 2008, at 09:35 PM by 88.66.200.41 -
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Para hydrogen converter

Raman spectroscopy

July 12, 2008, at 09:32 PM by 88.66.200.41 -
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At the Max Planck Institut für Kernphysik the molecule H3+ is investigated. To understand better this molecule better not normal H2 but para-H2 is used as ion source material. The nuclear spins of the H-atoms have two possibilites: parallel (called ortho) or antiparallel (called para). In thermic equilibrium hydrogen at 300 Kelvin the ratio between para- and ortho-hydrogen is 1:3. The para state is energetic lower than the ortho state. To produce hydrogen gas that consists mainly by para hydrogen normal hydrogen gas is cooled below 20 Kelvin. Because a spin flip is not so likely, a catalyst with paramagnetic properties is in contact with the cold hydrogen gas to accelerated this process. A device that converts normal hydrogen gas to para-hydrogen is called para-hydrogen-converter. To measure the purity of the para-hydrogen gas Raman spectroscopy is used. The following pictures are from the diploma thesis of Dennis Bing from the year 2006 (dennisbing2006) (thanks Dennis Bing for permission to use them).

to:

At the Max Planck Institut für Kernphysik the molecule H3+ is investigated. To understand better this molecule better not normal H2 but para-H2 is used as ion source material. The nuclear spins of the H-atoms have two possibilites: parallel (called ortho) or antiparallel (called para). In thermic equilibrium hydrogen at 300 Kelvin the ratio between para- and ortho-hydrogen is 1:3. The para state is energetic lower than the ortho state. To produce hydrogen gas that consists mainly by para hydrogen normal hydrogen gas is cooled below 20 Kelvin. Because a spin flip is not so likely, a catalyst with paramagnetic properties is in contact with the cold hydrogen gas to accelerated this process. A device that converts normal hydrogen gas to para-hydrogen is called para-hydrogen-converter. To measure the purity of the para-hydrogen gas Raman spectroscopy is used. This work was done with Dennis Bing in 2006. The following pictures are from the diploma thesis of Dennis Bing from the year 2006 (dennisbing2006) (thanks Dennis Bing for permission to use them).

July 12, 2008, at 09:29 PM by 88.66.200.41 -
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Table of contents (:toc:)

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At the Max Planck Institut für Kernphysik the molecule H3+ is investigated. To understand better this molecule better not normal H2 but para-H2 is used as ion source material. The nuclear spins of the H-atoms have two possibilites: parallel (called ortho) or antiparallel (called para). In thermic equilibrium hydrogen at 300 Kelvin the ratio between para- and ortho-hydrogen is 1:3. The para state is energetic lower than the ortho state. To produce hydrogen gas that consists mainly by para hydrogen normal hydrogen gas is cooled below 20 Kelvin. Because a spin flip is not so likely, a catalyst with paramagnetic properties is in contact with the cold hydrogen gas to accelerated this process. A device that converts normal hydrogen gas to para-hydrogen is called para-hydrogen-converter. To measure the purity of the para-hydrogen gas Raman spectroscopy is used. The following pictures are from the diploma thesis of Dennis Bing from the year 2006 (dennisbing2006) (thanks Dennis Bing for permission to use them).

to:

At the Max Planck Institut für Kernphysik the molecule H3+ is investigated. To understand better this molecule better not normal H2 but para-H2 is used as ion source material. The nuclear spins of the H-atoms have two possibilites: parallel (called ortho) or antiparallel (called para). In thermic equilibrium hydrogen at 300 Kelvin the ratio between para- and ortho-hydrogen is 1:3. The para state is energetic lower than the ortho state. To produce hydrogen gas that consists mainly by para hydrogen normal hydrogen gas is cooled below 20 Kelvin. Because a spin flip is not so likely, a catalyst with paramagnetic properties is in contact with the cold hydrogen gas to accelerated this process. A device that converts normal hydrogen gas to para-hydrogen is called para-hydrogen-converter. To measure the purity of the para-hydrogen gas Raman spectroscopy is used. The following pictures are from the diploma thesis of Dennis Bing from the year 2006 (dennisbing2006) (thanks Dennis Bing for permission to use them).

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July 12, 2008, at 09:28 PM by 88.66.200.41 -
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At the Max Planck Institut für Kernphysik the molecule H3+ is investigated. To understand better this molecule better not normal H2 but para-H2 is used as ion source material. The nuclear spins of the H-atoms have two possibilites: parallel (called ortho) or antiparallel (called para). In thermic equilibrium hydrogen at 300 Kelvin the ratio between para- and ortho-hydrogen is 1:3. The para state is energetic lower than the ortho state. To produce hydrogen gas that consists mainly by para hydrogen normal hydrogen gas is cooled below 20 Kelvin. Because a spin flip is not so likely, a catalyst with paramagnetic properties is in contact with the cold hydrogen gas to accelerated this process. A device that converts normal hydrogen gas to para-hydrogen is called para-hydrogen-converter. To measure the purity of the para-hydrogen gas Raman spectroscopy is used. The following pictures are from the diploma thesis of Dennis Bing from the year 2006 (dennisbing2006).

to:

At the Max Planck Institut für Kernphysik the molecule H3+ is investigated. To understand better this molecule better not normal H2 but para-H2 is used as ion source material. The nuclear spins of the H-atoms have two possibilites: parallel (called ortho) or antiparallel (called para). In thermic equilibrium hydrogen at 300 Kelvin the ratio between para- and ortho-hydrogen is 1:3. The para state is energetic lower than the ortho state. To produce hydrogen gas that consists mainly by para hydrogen normal hydrogen gas is cooled below 20 Kelvin. Because a spin flip is not so likely, a catalyst with paramagnetic properties is in contact with the cold hydrogen gas to accelerated this process. A device that converts normal hydrogen gas to para-hydrogen is called para-hydrogen-converter. To measure the purity of the para-hydrogen gas Raman spectroscopy is used. The following pictures are from the diploma thesis of Dennis Bing from the year 2006 (dennisbing2006) (thanks Dennis Bing for permission to use them).

July 12, 2008, at 09:27 PM by 88.66.200.41 -
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At the Max Planck Institut für Kernphysik the molecule H3+ is investigated. To understand better this molecule better not normal H2 but para-H2 is used as ion source material. The nuclear spins of the H-atoms have two possibilites: parallel (called ortho) or antiparallel (called para). In thermic equilibrium hydrogen at 300 Kelvin the ratio between para- and ortho-hydrogen is 1:3. The para state is energetic lower than the ortho state. To produce hydrogen gas that consists mainly by para hydrogen normal hydrogen gas is cooled below 20 Kelvin. Because a spin flip is not so likely, a catalyst with paramagnetic properties is in contact with the cold hydrogen gas to accelerated this process. A device that converts normal hydrogen gas to para-hydrogen is called para-hydrogen-converter. To measure the purity of the para-hydrogen gas Raman spectroscopy is used. The following pictures are from the diploma thesis of Dennis Bing from the year 2006(dennisbing2006).

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Introduction

At the Max Planck Institut für Kernphysik the molecule H3+ is investigated. To understand better this molecule better not normal H2 but para-H2 is used as ion source material. The nuclear spins of the H-atoms have two possibilites: parallel (called ortho) or antiparallel (called para). In thermic equilibrium hydrogen at 300 Kelvin the ratio between para- and ortho-hydrogen is 1:3. The para state is energetic lower than the ortho state. To produce hydrogen gas that consists mainly by para hydrogen normal hydrogen gas is cooled below 20 Kelvin. Because a spin flip is not so likely, a catalyst with paramagnetic properties is in contact with the cold hydrogen gas to accelerated this process. A device that converts normal hydrogen gas to para-hydrogen is called para-hydrogen-converter. To measure the purity of the para-hydrogen gas Raman spectroscopy is used. The following pictures are from the diploma thesis of Dennis Bing from the year 2006 (dennisbing2006).

July 12, 2008, at 09:26 PM by 88.66.200.41 -
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At the Max Planck Institut für Kernphysik the molecule H3+ is investigated. To understand better this molecule better not normal H2 but para-H2 is used as ion source material. The nuclear spins of the H-atoms have two possibilites: parallel (called ortho) or antiparallel (called para). In thermic equilibrium hydrogen at 300 Kelvin the ratio between para- and ortho-hydrogen is 1:3. The para state is energetic lower than the ortho state. To produce hydrogen gas that consists mainly by para hydrogen normal hydrogen gas is cooled below 20 Kelvin. Because a spin flip is not so likely, a catalyst with paramagnetic properties is in contact with the cold hydrogen gas to accelerated this process. A device that converts normal hydrogen gas to para-hydrogen is called para-hydrogen-converter. To measure the purity of the para-hydrogen gas Raman spectroscopy is used. The following pictures are from the diploma thesis of Dennis Bing from the year 2006{[dennisbing2006]}.

to:

At the Max Planck Institut für Kernphysik the molecule H3+ is investigated. To understand better this molecule better not normal H2 but para-H2 is used as ion source material. The nuclear spins of the H-atoms have two possibilites: parallel (called ortho) or antiparallel (called para). In thermic equilibrium hydrogen at 300 Kelvin the ratio between para- and ortho-hydrogen is 1:3. The para state is energetic lower than the ortho state. To produce hydrogen gas that consists mainly by para hydrogen normal hydrogen gas is cooled below 20 Kelvin. Because a spin flip is not so likely, a catalyst with paramagnetic properties is in contact with the cold hydrogen gas to accelerated this process. A device that converts normal hydrogen gas to para-hydrogen is called para-hydrogen-converter. To measure the purity of the para-hydrogen gas Raman spectroscopy is used. The following pictures are from the diploma thesis of Dennis Bing from the year 2006(dennisbing2006).

July 12, 2008, at 09:25 PM by 88.66.200.41 -
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At the Max Planck Institut für Kernphysik the molecule H3+ is investigated. To understand better this molecule better not normal H2 but para-H2 is used as ion source material. The nuclear spins of the H-atoms have two possibilites: parallel (called ortho) or antiparallel (called para). In thermic equilibrium hydrogen at 300 Kelvin the ratio between para- and ortho-hydrogen is 1:3. The para state is energetic lower than the ortho state. To produce hydrogen gas that consists mainly by para hydrogen normal hydrogen gas is cooled below 20 Kelvin. Because a spin flip is not so likely, a catalyst with paramagnetic properties is in contact with the cold hydrogen gas to accelerated this process.

to:

At the Max Planck Institut für Kernphysik the molecule H3+ is investigated. To understand better this molecule better not normal H2 but para-H2 is used as ion source material. The nuclear spins of the H-atoms have two possibilites: parallel (called ortho) or antiparallel (called para). In thermic equilibrium hydrogen at 300 Kelvin the ratio between para- and ortho-hydrogen is 1:3. The para state is energetic lower than the ortho state. To produce hydrogen gas that consists mainly by para hydrogen normal hydrogen gas is cooled below 20 Kelvin. Because a spin flip is not so likely, a catalyst with paramagnetic properties is in contact with the cold hydrogen gas to accelerated this process. A device that converts normal hydrogen gas to para-hydrogen is called para-hydrogen-converter. To measure the purity of the para-hydrogen gas Raman spectroscopy is used. The following pictures are from the diploma thesis of Dennis Bing from the year 2006{[dennisbing2006]}.

July 12, 2008, at 09:18 PM by 88.66.200.41 -
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At the Max Planck Institut für Kernphysik the molecule H3+ is investigated. To understand better this molecule better not normal H2 but para-H2 is used as ion source material. The nuclear spins of the H-atoms have two possibilites: parallel (called ortho) or antiparallel (called para). In thermic equilibrium hydrogen at 300 Kelvin the ratio between para- and ortho-hydrogen is 1:3. The para state is energetic lower than the ortho state. To produce hydrogen gas that consists mainly by para hydrogen normal hydrogen gas is cooled below 20 Kelvin. Because a spin flip is not so likely, a catalyst with paramagnetic properties is in contact with the cold hydrogen gas to accelerated this process.

to:

At the Max Planck Institut für Kernphysik the molecule H3+ is investigated. To understand better this molecule better not normal H2 but para-H2 is used as ion source material. The nuclear spins of the H-atoms have two possibilites: parallel (called ortho) or antiparallel (called para). In thermic equilibrium hydrogen at 300 Kelvin the ratio between para- and ortho-hydrogen is 1:3. The para state is energetic lower than the ortho state. To produce hydrogen gas that consists mainly by para hydrogen normal hydrogen gas is cooled below 20 Kelvin. Because a spin flip is not so likely, a catalyst with paramagnetic properties is in contact with the cold hydrogen gas to accelerated this process.

July 12, 2008, at 09:17 PM by 88.66.200.41 -
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At the Max Planck Institut für Kernphysik the molecule H3+ is investigated. To understand better this molecule better not normal H2 but para-H2 is used as ion source material.

to:

At the Max Planck Institut für Kernphysik the molecule H3+ is investigated. To understand better this molecule better not normal H2 but para-H2 is used as ion source material. The nuclear spins of the H-atoms have two possibilites: parallel (called ortho) or antiparallel (called para). In thermic equilibrium hydrogen at 300 Kelvin the ratio between para- and ortho-hydrogen is 1:3. The para state is energetic lower than the ortho state. To produce hydrogen gas that consists mainly by para hydrogen normal hydrogen gas is cooled below 20 Kelvin. Because a spin flip is not so likely, a catalyst with paramagnetic properties is in contact with the cold hydrogen gas to accelerated this process.

July 12, 2008, at 09:06 PM by 88.66.200.41 -
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Raman spectroscopy H2 as analysis tool

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Raman spectroscopy H2 as analysis tool

At the Max Planck Institut für Kernphysik the molecule H3+ is investigated. To understand better this molecule better not normal H2 but para-H2 is used as ion source material.

July 05, 2008, at 01:29 AM by 88.65.198.155 -
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Raman spectroscopy H2 as analysis tool